Benefits of Bioprinting2018-11-06T23:58:27+00:00

Benefits of Bioprinting

3D bioprinting is a revolutionary technology that will eventually make medical care more effective, faster, and more personalized.   This simple technique enables researchers to fabricate geometrically well-defined 3D scaffolds seeded with cells in a rapid, inexpensive, and high-throughput manner. Bioprinting organs and tissue patches from a patient’s own cells reduces the chance of rejection and can eliminate the need for organ donors.

bioprinted nose and tissues_2018-09-25

BASIC RESEARCH IN TISSUE ENGINEERING

Challenges

  • Traditionally, stem cells are proliferated as a monolayer in two-dimensional (2D) plastic culture plates. However, 2D culture techniques are inherently inefficient, labor intensive and expensive, and yield to limited expansion of stem cells. Moreover, 2D cultures yield heterogeneous populations of stem cells and their derivatives. Overall, 2D culture conditions lack the intricacy necessary to mimic the 3D microenvironment of a stem cell niche responsible for the regulation of stem cell fate.
  • Due to the inherent problems of the 2D culturing, 3D culture methods have been developed to control cell fate by recapitulating the physical and biochemical properties of the native microenvironments.
  • However, prefabricated or rigid 3D scaffolds require cell seeding or migration of cells into the scaffold, which can yield to heterogeneous distribution of cells. Moreover, using conventional laboratory techniques, such as photolithography and stamping, for patterning the scaffolds with biologically active molecules is time-consuming as several manual and complex fabrication steps are required. Thus, the fabrication of these 3D microenvironments is not easily scalable to produce constructs in a high-throughput and highly reproducible manner.
bioprinting applications tissues

Solution

  • Bioprinting allows researchers to fabricate simplified homocellular tissue models for basic research or to produce more complex scaffolds with controlled spatial heterogeneity of physical properties, cellular composition, and ECM/biomolecule organization.
  • Spatially defined gradients of immobilized biomolecules can be fabricated automatically in a noncontact manner reducing the risk of cross-contamination originating from the surface and without the need to chemically modify the printable proteins or substrates.
  • Bioprinted gradients and patterns of biomolecules can extend our understanding about how to develop better microenvironments for stem cells in order to direct stem cell differentiation into multiple subpopulations of different lineages.

TISSUE MODELS FOR DRUG SCREENING AND TOXICOLOGY SCREENING

Artboard Artboard bioprinting tissues drug screening

Challenges

  • The costs of drug development (~$2.6 billion per every new drug entering the market) are becoming prohibitively expensive and stricter guidance around animal testing means that the pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies need more cost-effective alternatives without compromising results.
  • The results gained from preclinical animal models used to assess the safety and toxicity of new drug candidates translate poorly to humans. Hence, drug discovery often results in failure reaching the market, in fact, only one out of ten drugs reaching the clinical trials finally enters the market.
  • In 2013, the European Union issued a ban covering both the testing of cosmetic products and ingredients on animals, and bringing to market any product which had been tested on animals. This has raised a number of issues with cosmetic companies manufacturing and selling their products within the EU and forced them to seek alternative methods for cosmetic testing.

Challenges

  • The costs of drug development (~$2.6 billion per every new drug entering the market) are becoming prohibitively expensive and stricter guidance around animal testing means that the pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies need more cost-effective alternatives without compromising results.
  • The results gained from preclinical animal models used to assess the safety and toxicity of new drug candidates translate poorly to humans. Hence, drug discovery often results in failure reaching the market, in fact, only one out of ten drugs reaching the clinical trials finally enters the market.
  • In 2013, the European Union issued a ban covering both the testing of cosmetic products and ingredients on animals, and bringing to market any product which had been tested on animals. This has raised a number of issues with cosmetic companies manufacturing and selling their products within the EU and forced them to seek alternative methods for cosmetic testing.
Artboard Artboard bioprinting tissues drug screening

Solution

  • Bioprinted tissue models based on human cells can improve the drug discovery process by eliminating unsafe drug candidates at an earlier stage thus speeding up the translation of new drugs into clinics.
  • Tissue models can eliminate the need of animal trials for drug discovery and cosmetic testing altogether as well as decrease preclinical trial costs.
  • Similarly, the automatically and reproducibly produced tissue constructs can increase the confidence in safety assessments several chemical products, such as agrochemicals and guide the research projects away from potential hepatic toxicants at early stage.

TISSUE MODELS FOR CANCER RESEARCH

Challenges

  • Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide in countries of all income levels. Furthermore, the number of cancer cases and deaths is expected to grow rapidly as populations grow, age, and adopt lifestyle behaviors that increase cancer risk. It is estimated that more than 20 million new cancer cases annually will occur by 2025.
  • Cancer therapeutics currently have the lowest clinical trial success rate of all major diseases. The majority of the cancer research is conducted in mouse models having several flaws and can thus result in the misrepresentation of human tumor biology.
  • Hence, better and more affordable pre-clinical human tissue models representing cancer pathways in a realistic biological context are highly needed.
brinter bioprinting brinter bioprinting_bioprinting applications tissues

Solution

  • Bioprinted in vitro tumor models based on human cancer cells can accurately reproduce the characteristics of human cancer tissue, which allows studies concerning complex interactions such as cancer cell dynamics during vascularization or metastasis of cancer cells.
  • In the future, bioprinted tumor models created using patient’s own cancerous cells could also enable the personalization of anticancer drugs.

DRUG PRINTING

Artboard Artboard bioprinting applications tissues drug screening

Challenges

  • Conventional pharmaceutical manufacturing processes first introduced around 200 years ago are still in use today. Although these fabrication methods are cost-effective for large-scale production, they are inherently time consuming, labor intensive, and, due to the large batch sizes needed, dose inflexible.
  • Usually, tablets are mass-manufactured in just a few discrete strengths, often based on the dose required for a suitable effect in the majority of the population. However, it is evident that one dose might not fit all; requirements can vary based on a patient’s genetic profile, disease state, gender, age, and weight.
  • The traditional manufacturing processes do not support the early-phase drug development, where the dose flexibility according to the study needs is a key requirement.

Challenges

  • Conventional pharmaceutical manufacturing processes first introduced around 200 years ago are still in use today. Although these fabrication methods are cost-effective for large-scale production, they are inherently time consuming, labor intensive, and, due to the large batch sizes needed, dose inflexible.
  • Usually, tablets are mass-manufactured in just a few discrete strengths, often based on the dose required for a suitable effect in the majority of the population. However, it is evident that one dose might not fit all; requirements can vary based on a patient’s genetic profile, disease state, gender, age, and weight.
  • The traditional manufacturing processes do not support the early-phase drug development, where the dose flexibility according to the study needs is a key requirement.
Artboard Artboard bioprinting applications tissues drug screening

Solution

  • 3D bioprinting allows the individualization of the medication according to the needs of the patients, their genetic profile, as well as their health condition. It can revolutionize the way that tablets are manufactured, and thus, moves medical treatment away from a “one size fits all” approach towards personalized medicines.
  • Several factors like the size, dose, appearance and rate of delivery of a drug could be controlled.
  • 3D bioprinted drug prototypes could help provide an increased understanding during the early drug development decreasing time-to-market and the risks of nonadaptation.
  • 3D bioprinting of drugs could take place anywhere in the world as long as the ingredients are at hand, which would cut the costs as shipping and tariffs can be omitted. Furthermore, on-demand dispensing in various settings, such as pharmacies and hospital wards, could improve medicine access, reduce medicine wastage, and accelerate discharge times from hospitals.

BIOPRINTED TISSUES AND ORGANS

Challenges

  • Organ transplant waiting lists for patients on long-term dialysis or approaching end-stage liver failure present an economic health burden felt by every health system in the world.
  • In 2015, more than 126 000 transplants were performed worldwide, an increase of almost 5.8% from the previous year.
  • Despite the high number of performed transplantations, the number of people on the organ donation waiting list still far exceeds the number of suitable donors as these transplantations cover only less than 10% of patients waiting for donor organs
  • Currently, patients needing organ replacement have to wait for availability either from living or deceased donors and after finally receiving a transplant they are have to be on immunosuppressive drugs for the rest of their lives.
bioprinting tissue transplants brinter

Solution

  • In the future, functional organs, such as livers, kidneys, and hearts, could be bioprinted, hence reducing the organ transplant shortage.
  • Bioprinted organs would not be rejected by the body as they could be fabricated from the patient’s own cells, which would eliminate the detrimental side effects of immunosuppressive drugs as well as the tremendous costs they create for the healthcare system.

Talk to Brinter™ about your BioPrinting needs.

TALK TO BRINTER™